Both were positively reviewed in the December 2009 issue of PHYSICS TODAY (page 51).
Other writers have stated the facts correctly as well..." " [Please send your favorite example of this to [email protected] ] So consider now this excerpt from NASA's Test of the Big Bang article.
Evidence for the Big Bang: NASA, Lawrence Krauss, et al., say it's the theory's predictions.
* The Big Bang's Failed Predictions and Failures to Predict: (Updated May 4, 2018.) As documented below, trust in has been misplaced when compared to the actual astronomical observations that were made, in large part, in hopes of affirming the theory.
What Lemaître sought were solutions to [Einstein's] field equations that would avoid "Einstein's static universe... (Eddington in 1931 estimated the universe originally at between a billion and 1.2 billion light-years in radius before it began expanding and later that same year Lemaître wrote in Monthly Notices on how, "the expansion of may be started..." (Note, this explicitly is NOT a big bang origin of the universe but the start of an expansion of a universe already in existence.) - 1929 Edwin Hubble: A relation between distance and radial velocity among extra-galactic nebulae, which paper included the "Hubble Law" [called that because Hubble failed to attribute it as Lemaître's Law].
- 1931 Arthur Eddington: Mentioning in passing Lemaître and the growing belief in an expanding universe, Eddington suggests: From the astronomical data it appears that the original radius of space [i.e., the universe] was 1200 million light years. At that radius the mutual attraction of the matter in the world [cosmos] was just sufficient to hold it together and check the tendency to expand. An expansion [from an initially static universe] began, slow at first; but the more widely the matter was scattered the less able was the mutual gravitation to check the expansion.
The links to these ten publications bring you to original sources.
- Yet even secular science authorities have begun objecting to the systematic misattribution, and hence, post-dating, of the the claim of expansion.
Expansion was not a "prediction" of the 1931 big bang theory; it was a 1920s interpretation of both Einstein's equations and red-shift data.
The Corrected History of the Discovery of Expansion: On the entire Internet, the following is the most concise and reasonably comprehensive chronology of the discovery of the (apparent) expansion of the universe.
Eddington then goes on to present a few pages of musings on entropy and time and then estimates the fine-tuning of the physics of the universe as more unlikely than one chance in ten raised to the hundredth power.
In that paragraph, he states, "Philosophically, the notion of a beginning of the present order of Nature is repugnant to me." Lemaître seized upon this statement in his very brief letter published two months later in the journal Nature proposing what became known as the big bang theory.
So consider this concise, corrected chronology of discovery: - 1912 Vesto Slipher: The radial velocity of the Andromeda Nebula.